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An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system. Transistors interconnected so as to provide positive feedback are used as latches and flip flops, circuits that have two or more metastable states, and remain in one of these states until changed by an external input. Like Big Science, high technology is an international phenomenon, spanning continents, epitomized by the worldwide communication of the Internet. Components are often categorized as active (e.g. In the vast majority of cases, binary encoding is used: one voltage (typically the more positive value) represents a binary '1' and another voltage (usually a value near the ground potential, 0 V) represents a binary '0'.
They took electronics from parlor tricks and gave us radio, television, phonographs, radar, long distance telephony and much more. Analog circuitry is constructed from two fundamental building blocks: series and parallel circuits. Memory based on the storage of charge in a capacitor, dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is also widely used.) The design process for digital circuits is fundamentally different from the process for analog circuits. One rarely finds modern circuits that are entirely analog. Electronic components have two or more electrical terminals (or leads) aside from antennas which may only have one terminal.
Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits.
Similarly, an overdriven transistor amplifier can take on the characteristics of a controlled switch having essentially two levels of output.
The combination of components and wires allows various simple and complex operations to be performed: signals can be amplified, computations can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another. Circuits can be constructed of discrete components connected by individual pieces of wire, but today it is much more common to create interconnections by photolithographic techniques on a laminated substrate (a printed circuit board or PCB) and solder the components to these interconnections to create a finished circuit.